Philosophy

   In early Byzantine times the Academy ofAthens (q.v.) was the center of philosophical inquiry, especially of Neoplatonism (q.v.) as taught by Proklos and his student Ammonios of Alexandria (q.v.). Ammonios's students included Damaskios and John Philoponos (q.v.), whose attacks on Aristotle's (q.v.) cosmology prefigured later attacks by Galileo. When Justinian I (q.v.) closed the Academy of Athens in 529, Damaskios and six other philosophers sought refuge in Persia (q.v.). Justinian allowed them to return to the empire in 532 with the promise that they would not be harassed. Despite the church's suspicion of Neoplatonism, its impact on theology can be seen in the writings of the so-called Pseudo-Dionysios the Areopagite, also in those of John of Damascus (qq.v.). Prior to the revival of education in the 11th century, Leo the Mathematician, Photios, and Arethas of Caesarea (qq.v.) kept philosophical studies alive. The University of Constantinople, revived by Constantine XI (q.v.), included a school of philosophy led by Psellos (q.v.), whose interests lay chiefly in Neoplatonism. However, Psellos's pupil John Italos (q.v.) focused on Aristotle, as did Italos's students Eustratios of Nicaea and Michael of Ephesus (qq.v.). In the Palaiologan (q.v.) period, philosophical studies flourished under George Akropolites (a student of Nikephoros Blemmydes), George Pachymeres, Theodore Metochites, Nikephoros Choumnos, and Nikephoros Gregoras (qq.v.). Even on the eve of Byzantium's (q.v.) extinction, Neoplatonic studies continued under Bessarion and George Gemistos Plethon (q.v.). Plethon so impressed Cosimo de'Medici at the Council of Ferrara-Florence (q.v.) that Cosimo founded the Platonic Academy. Gennadios II Scholarios (q.v.) defended Aristotle against Plethon's criticism, in addition to defending Thomas Aquinas (q.v.).

Historical Dictionary of Byzantium . .

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  • philosophy — (Gk., love of knowledge or wisdom) The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the concepts with which we approach the world… …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Philosophy — broad field of inquiry concerning knowledge; in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom, spans the nature of the universe and human nature (of the mind and the body), the… …   Mini philosophy glossary

  • philosophy — (falsafa; hikma)    Falsafa is an Arabic neologism for the Greek word philosophia, meaning ‘love of wisdom’. The derivation of this term points to the profound initial influence of Greek thought upon Islamic philosophy, due to the eastern… …   Islamic philosophy dictionary

  • Philosophy — • Detailed article on the history of the love of wisdom Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Philosophy     Philosophy     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • philosophy —    Philosophy (from the Greek philo (love) and sophia (wisdom)) in British culture has undergone a series of revolutionary changes since 1960. Until recently, English language philosophy was dominated by analytic and linguistic philosophy based… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • Philosophy — Phi*los o*phy (f[i^]*l[o^]s [ o]*f[y^]), n.; pl. {Philosophies} (f[i^]*l[o^]s [ o]*f[i^]z). [OE. philosophie, F. philosophie, L. philosophia, from Gr. filosofi a. See {Philosopher}.] 1. Literally, the love of, inducing the search after, wisdom;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • philosophy —    Philosophy in the early years of the twentieth century was heavily influenced by two different traditions. On the one hand, there was the legacy of the Europeanizing movement known as Krausism, a kind of secular humanism with a religious tinge …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • philosophy — [fi läs′ə fē] n. pl. philosophies [ME philosophie < OFr < L philosophia < Gr < philosophos: see PHILOSOPHER] 1. Archaic love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge 2. theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct …   English World dictionary

  • philosophy — c.1300, from O.Fr. filosofie (12c.), from L. philosophia, from Gk. philosophia love of knowledge, wisdom, from philo loving (see PHILO (Cf. philo )) + sophia knowledge, wisdom, from sophis wise, learned; of unknown origin. Nec quicquam aliud est… …   Etymology dictionary

  • philosophy — index doctrine, posture (attitude), principle (axiom), theory Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

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